# How to generate a random sequence, receptor or repertoire dataset¶

Random immune receptor sequence, immune receptor or immune repertoire datasets (short: random sequence/receptor/repertoire datasets) can be used to quickly try out some immuneML functionalities, and may also be used as a baseline when comparing different machine learning models (benchmarking, see Weber et al., Bioinformatics, https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa158). A random sequence/receptor/repertoire dataset consists of randomly generated amino acid sequences, where the amino acids are chosen from a uniform distribution. The dataset size, sequence lengths and optional labels can be specified by the user.

The generated dataset can then be used to train a classifier (see How to train and assess a receptor or repertoire-level ML classifier), apply a classifier (see How to apply previously trained ML models to a new dataset), or simulate immune events (see How to simulate antigen or disease-associated signals in AIRR datasets).

## YAML specification of a random repertoire dataset¶

Alternatively to loading an existing dataset into immuneML, it is possible to specify a random repertoire dataset as an input dataset in the YAML specification. This random repertoire dataset will be generated on the fly when running an immuneML analysis.

The parameters for generating a random repertoire dataset are specified under definitions/datasets in the YAML specification:

```
datasets:
my_dataset:
format: RandomRepertoireDataset
params:
repertoire_count: 100 # number of repertoires to be generated
sequence_count_probabilities: # the probabilities have to sum to 1
100: 0.5 # the probability that any repertoire will have 100 sequences
120: 0.5 # the probability that any repertoire will have 120 sequences
sequence_length_probabilities: # the probabilities have to sum to 1
12: 0.33 # the probability that any sequence will contain 12 amino acids
14: 0.33 # the probability that any sequence will contain 14 amino acids
15: 0.33 # the probability that any sequence will contain 15 amino acids
labels: # metadata that can be used as labels, can also be empty
HLA: # label name, any name can be chosen (the probabilities per label value have to sum to 1)
A: 0.6 # the probability that any generated repertoire will have HLA A
B: 0.4 # the probability that any generated repertoire will have HLA B
```

For the sequence count probabilities, sequence length probabilities and any custom labels multiple values can be specified, together with the probability that each value will occur in the repertoire. These probability values must in all cases sum to 1.

## YAML specification of a random sequence dataset¶

Specifying a random sequence dataset is similar to specifying a random repertoire dataset, except there are some minor differences in the settings.

```
datasets:
my_dataset:
format: RandomSequenceDataset
params:
sequence_count: 100 # number of receptors to be generated
length_probabilities:
14: 0.8 # 80% of all generated sequences for all receptors (for chain 1) will have length 14
15: 0.2 # 20% of all generated sequences across all receptors (for chain 1) will have length 15
labels: # metadata that can be used as labels, can also be empty
binds_epitope: # label name, any name can be chosen (the probabilities per label value have to sum to 1)
True: 0.6 # 60% of the receptors will have class True
False: 0.4 # 40% of the receptors will have class False
```

## YAML specification of a random receptor dataset¶

Finally, a random receptor dataset can be specified as follows:

```
datasets:
my_dataset:
format: RandomReceptorDataset
params:
receptor_count: 100 # number of receptors to be generated
chain_1_length_probabilities:
14: 0.8 # 80% of all generated sequences for all receptors (for chain 1) will have length 14
15: 0.2 # 20% of all generated sequences across all receptors (for chain 1) will have length 15
chain_2_length_probabilities:
14: 0.8
15: 0.2
labels: # metadata that can be used as labels, can also be empty
binds_epitope: # label name, any name can be chosen (the probabilities per label value have to sum to 1)
True: 0.6 # 60% of the receptors will have class True
False: 0.4 # 40% of the receptors will have class False
```

## Exporting a random sequence/receptor/repertoire dataset¶

It is possible to export the generated random sequence/receptor/repertoire dataset to AIRR or ImmuneML format. This can be done by exporting the generated dataset through the DatasetExport instruction. The generated dataset can subsequently be used for other analyses or machine learning. A complete YAML specification for random repertoire generation and export is given below:

```
definitions:
datasets:
my_dataset:
# this is the definition for a random repertoire dataset,
# alternatively, the definition of a random sequence/receptor dataset can be specified
format: RandomRepertoireDataset
params:
labels: {}
repertoire_count: 100
sequence_count_probabilities:
100: 0.5
120: 0.5
sequence_length_probabilities:
10: 1.0
instructions:
my_dataset_export_instruction:
type: DatasetExport
datasets: [my_dataset] # list of datasets to export
export_formats: [AIRR, ImmuneML] # list of formats to export the datasets to.
```

## Generating random sequence/receptor/repertoire datasets in the code¶

For developers, it is also possible to generate a random receptor/repertoire dataset directly inside the code. To do this, use the RandomDatasetGenerator class, located in the package simulation.dataset_generation. The methods below use the same parameters as described above, and returns a SequenceDataset, ReceptorDataset or RepertoireDataset object:

```
repertoire_dataset = RandomDatasetGenerator.generate_repertoire_dataset(repertoire_count=100,
sequence_count_probabilities={100: 0.5, 120: 0.5},
sequence_length_probabilities={12: 0.33, 14: 0.33, 15: 0.33},
labels={"HLA": {"A": 0.5, "B": 0.5}},
path=path)
sequence_dataset = RandomDatasetGenerator.generate_receptor_dataset(sequence_count=100,
length_probabilities={12: 0.33, 14: 0.33, 15: 0.33},
labels={"binds_epitope": {"True": 0.5, "False": 0.5}},
path=path)
receptor_dataset = RandomDatasetGenerator.generate_receptor_dataset(receptor_count=100,
chain_1_length_probabilities={12: 0.33, 14: 0.33, 15: 0.33},
chain_2_length_probabilities={12: 0.33, 14: 0.33, 15: 0.33},
labels={"binds_epitope": {"True": 0.5, "False": 0.5}},
path=path)
```